# SKM 2023 – wissenschaftliches Programm

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# DY: Fachverband Dynamik und Statistische Physik

## DY 40: Stochastic Thermodynamics

### DY 40.9: Vortrag

### Donnerstag, 30. März 2023, 12:15–12:30, ZEU 250

**Large deviations theory for noisy non-linear electronics** — •Ashwin Gopal, Massimiliano Esposito, and Nahuel Freitas — University of Luxembourg, L-1511 Luxembourg, Luxembourg

The latest generations of transistors are nanoscale devices whose performance and reliability are limited by thermal noise in low-power applications. Therefore, developing efficient methods to compute the voltage and current fluctuations in such non-linear electronic circuits is essential. In this presentation, I will describe the large deviations approach to compute these fluctuations using the stochastic thermodynamic description of CMOS-based electronics (Phys. Rev. B 106, 155303). Starting from the thermodynamically consistent description of the charge transfer at a single electron level, I will then consider the macroscopic limit. This corresponds to scaling up the transistor's physical dimensions, resulting in an increase in the number of electrons on the conductors. In this limit, the thermal fluctuations satisfy a Large Deviations Principle which I will show is also remarkably precise in settings involving only a few tens of electrons, by comparing our results with Gillespie simulations and spectral methods. Traditional approaches, using the stationary Gaussian white noise, are recovered by resorting to an ad hoc diffusive approximation revealing their inconsistencies. To illustrate these findings, I will use the case study of the low-power CMOS inverter, or NOT gate, which is a basic primitive in electronic design. Finally, I will briefly comment on thermodynamic uncertainty (TUR) relations and information processing, in the context of such electronic circuits.